Brick and Stone Masonry
Define the term Masonry
Defining the term Masonry is a learning outcome that relates to understanding the concept of masonry, which is the method of building structures using shaped and unshaped natural stones, bricks, tiles, or other similar materials.
Masonry can be classified into two types: load-bearing masonry and non-load bearing masonry.
- Load-bearing masonry is used when the structural load of the building is carried by the masonry walls. In this case, the masonry is used to form the structure of the building, acting as both load-bearing and finish materials.
- Non-load-bearing masonry is used when the structural load of the building is carried by other elements, such as steel or concrete beams and columns. In this case, the masonry is used primarily as a finish material and does not contribute to the structural integrity of the building.
Masonry has been in use for centuries, and has played a significant role in the construction of many buildings, structures and monuments, due to its durability, fire resistance, and aesthetic appeal.
In terms of composition, masonry can be made of different materials, including:
- Brick masonry: Made of clay bricks laid in mortar.
- Stone masonry: Made of natural or cut stones laid in mortar.
- Block masonry: Made of concrete blocks laid in mortar.
The different types of masonry have different properties, such as strength, fire resistance, durability, and insulation properties. These properties will affect the selection of the appropriate type of masonry for a given structure, and also the way the masonry should be designed and built to meet the specific requirements of the structure.
Overall, masonry is an important method of building construction that is used to construct a wide variety of structures. It is a traditional method that has stood the test of time, and is still widely used today. Engineers and architects must understand the properties and characteristics of masonry materials and how they are used in the construction of buildings, to make an informed choice, and design safe and long-lasting structures.
ALO:Recall the following terms related to Masonry: i. Course , ii. Header iii. Stretcher iv. Quoins , v. Face and Back vi. Queen closer and King closer vii. Bat
Recall the following terms related to Masonry: i. Course, ii. Header iii. Stretcher iv. Quoins , v. Face and Back vi. Queen closer and King closer vii. Bat" is a learning outcome that relates to understanding terms related to the construction and design of masonry structures.
- Course: A course refers to a horizontal layer of masonry units, such as bricks or stones. Courses are typically the same thickness and are laid one on top of the other to build a wall.
- Header: A header is a masonry unit that is placed with its width perpendicular to the face of the wall. Headers are typically used to bond different parts of a wall together, such as where two walls meet or where a window or door opening is located.
- Stretcher: A stretcher is a masonry unit that is placed with its width parallel to the face of the wall. Stretchers are typically used to fill the space between headers, creating a continuous wall.
- Quoins: A quoin is the corner of a building or wall that is usually made of dressed or larger masonry units than the rest of the wall, and is used to give the building a finished look.
- Face and Back: The face refers to the visible surface of the masonry wall, while the back refers to the inner surface.
- Queen closer and King closer: A queen closer is a brick that is half the length of a standard brick and is used to complete the bond at the end of a wall. A king closer is a brick that is one-third the length of a standard brick, and is used to complete the bond at the corners of a wall.
- Bat: A bat is a brick or stone that is cut to a different size than the standard unit and is used to fill in irregular spaces in a wall. Bats are typically used to achieve a desired bond or pattern in the wall.
These terms are important for engineers and architects to understand because they relate to the construction and design of masonry structures. They are used to describe different elements of a masonry wall, such as the different types of masonry units used, the orientation of the units, and the way the units are bonded together. Understanding these terms is crucial for ensuring that a masonry structure is constructed correctly and is safe and stable.
In summary, the terms related to masonry construction help to understand the proper orientation and bonding patterns of the masonry units, how it contributes to the overall stability of the structure, and how it can be used for aesthetic purposes. Engineers and architects must have a good understanding of these terms and concepts to design and construct safe and visually appealing masonry structures.
Stone masonry is the construction of buildings and structures using stone as a building material. There are several types of stone masonry, including rubble masonry and ashlar masonry.
i. Rubble Masonry:
Rubble masonry is a type of stone masonry that uses roughly dressed and irregularly shaped stones that are laid in a rough and random manner. The stones used in rubble masonry can be of various sizes and shapes, and they are usually not dressed or finished to a smooth surface. In this type of masonry, the spaces between the stones are filled with mortar. Rubble masonry is generally cheaper and less time-consuming to construct than ashlar masonry. Because of the irregularity of the stones and the rough nature of the finish, rubble masonry has a more rustic and natural appearance than ashlar masonry.
ii. Ashlar Masonry:
Ashlar masonry is a type of stone masonry that uses finely dressed and squared stones that are laid in a regular and systematic manner. The stones used in ashlar masonry are usually cut to a specific size and shape, and they are usually dressed and finished to a smooth surface. Ashlar masonry is generally more expensive and time-consuming to construct than rubble masonry. Because of the regularity of the stones and the smooth nature of the finish, ashlar masonry has a more refined and polished appearance than rubble masonry. This type of masonry can be seen mainly in the Gothic structure and ancient Roman temples and monuments.
In summary, Rubble masonry is a type of masonry that uses irregularly shaped stones laid in a random manner and Ashlar masonry is a type of masonry that uses finely dressed and squared stones laid in a regular and systematic manner
Recall the following Joints in Stone Masonry: i. Butt Joint, ii. Lapped Joint, iii. Grooved Joint, iv. Cramped Joint, v. Dowel Joint
Joints in stone masonry refer to the areas where two stone blocks meet and are held together. There are several types of joints used in stone masonry, each with its own specific characteristics and uses. The following are five types of joints commonly used in stone masonry:
i. Butt Joint:
A butt joint is a type of joint where two stone blocks are placed adjacent to each other with their surfaces in direct contact. The two blocks are held together by the weight of the stones and the friction between the blocks. This type of joint is not commonly used in stone masonry as it provides very little resistance to movement and can be prone to separation. It is mainly used for horizontal joints in which no load is applied on them.
ii. Lapped Joint:
A lapped joint is a type of joint where one stone block overlaps the other. This type of joint is commonly used in stone masonry as it provides good resistance to movement and is relatively easy to construct. The overlapping portion of the joint is usually filled with mortar to hold the blocks together.
iii. Grooved Joint:
A grooved joint is a type of joint where one stone block has a groove cut into its surface and the other block has a tongue that fits into the groove. This type of joint is similar to a lapped joint, but the tongue and groove provide extra resistance to movement. This type of joint is mainly used to connect two facing stone walls together to provide stability and strength.
iv. Cramped Joint:
A cramped joint is a type of joint where two stone blocks are held together by an iron or steel cramp or clamp. This type of joint provides very good resistance to movement and is commonly used in stone masonry for structural elements such as arches and vaults.
v. Dowel Joint:
A dowel joint is a type of joint where a steel or iron rod or "dowel" is used to connect two stone blocks together. This type of joint is similar to a cramped joint but used mainly for horizontal joints and mainly used in historical buildings and renovations. This type of joint provides a good resistance to movement and is suitable for load bearing elements.
In summary, joints in stone masonry are the areas where two stone blocks meet and are held together. Different types of joints have different characteristics and uses, such as Butt joint, Lapped joint, Grooved joint, Cramped joint and Dowel joint. Each of these types of joints is used for specific situations depending on the amount of resistance to movement, stability and strength required, and the ease of construction.
Brick masonry is a type of construction that involves laying bricks in a specific pattern to create a structure or building. Bricks are small, rectangular, and usually made of clay, which is a natural building material that is abundant and inexpensive. Brick masonry is one of the oldest and most widely used forms of construction and is still a popular building method today.
The process of brick masonry begins with the selection of suitable bricks. Bricks come in different sizes, shapes, and colors and are classified based on their strength and density. The selection of bricks depends on the intended use of the building, such as load-bearing walls or non-load-bearing walls, and the architectural design of the building.
Once the bricks are selected, they are arranged and laid out according to a specific pattern, or bond, which is determined by the type of structure and the architectural design. There are several types of bonds used in brick masonry, including the running bond, the stack bond, the English bond, and the Flemish bond. These bonds are used to create specific patterns and designs in the brickwork, as well as to add strength and stability to the structure.
Brick masonry is held together with a type of adhesive called mortar. Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, and water that is used to fill the spaces between the bricks. The mortar must be applied properly and allowed to cure or dry before the next course of bricks is laid.
Brick masonry has several advantages such as durability, fire resistance, and insulation. Bricks have a high resistance to fire, which makes it an excellent building material for structures that are at risk of fire. Bricks are also good insulators, which can help to keep a building warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Bricks are also relatively inexpensive, easy to work with and have a wide range of architectural possibilities.
In summary, Brick masonry is a type of construction that uses bricks to build structures. The process includes selection of suitable bricks, laying them out in specific patterns, known as bonds, and holding the bricks together with a type of adhesive called mortar. Brick masonry is a durable, fire-resistant and good insulation material, while being relatively inexpensive and easy to work with.
Recall the following terms related to Brick Masonry: i. Course, ii. Header, iii. Stretcher iv. Quoins, v. Face and Back, vi. Queen closer and King closer vii. Bat
The following are terms related to brick masonry that are commonly used in the construction industry:
A course is a single horizontal layer of bricks in a wall or structure. Each course is laid out so that the bricks in the next course will overlap the joint of the bricks in the previous course, this is called the bond. A course is typically made up of several rows of bricks and the number of courses in a wall will depend on the height of the wall and the size of the bricks used.
A header is a brick that is laid with its end facing outwards. In other words, the width of the brick is perpendicular to the surface of the wall. Headers are used in a specific pattern, known as a header bond, to add strength and stability to the wall.
A stretcher is a brick that is laid with its longest side facing outwards. In other words, the length of the brick is parallel to the surface of the wall. Stretchers are used in a specific pattern, known as a stretcher bond, to add strength and stability to the wall.
Quoins are bricks that are laid at the corners of a building or structure. Quoins provide stability and strength to the corners of the building and are usually laid in a different pattern than the rest of the wall. Quoins are usually laid with one end facing outwards and one end facing inwards.
v. Face and Back:
The face of the brick is the front side that is exposed in the wall, while the back is the side that faces inside the wall.
vi. Queen closer and King closer:
A queen closer is a brick that is laid with its width facing outwards, similar to the header. A king closer is a brick that is laid with its length facing outwards, similar to the stretcher. Queen closer and King closer are used as the last brick of a course at the end of a wall, near the corner of the wall, and have a specific pattern, known as a queen closer bond or king closer bond.
A bat is a brick that is smaller than standard bricks and is used to fill in spaces or to make up the height of a course. Bats are also known as cut bricks. They are used to achieve the specific dimensions of a wall, a window or a door opening, for example.
In summary, terms related to brick masonry are commonly used in the construction industry and include course, header, stretcher, quoins, face and back, queen closer, king closer and bat. Each of these terms refers to a specific aspect of brick masonry, such as the horizontal layers of bricks, the bricks laid with their ends or width facing outwards, the bricks laid at the corners of a building, or the smaller bricks used to fill in spaces. Understanding these terms is important for proper construction and design of brick masonry structures.
Recall the following types of Bond: i. Stretcher Bond, ii. Header Bond, iii. English Bond, iv. Flemish Bond, v. Raking Bond, vi. Zig-Zag Bond, vii. Garden Wall Bond
The following are types of bond in brick masonry:
- Stretcher Bond: This is the most common bond used in brick masonry, where the bricks are laid with their longest side (the stretcher) facing outwards. The stretchers of each row are centred over the gaps between the stretchers in the row below. This creates a simple and symmetrical pattern.
- Header Bond: This is a bond where the bricks are laid with their shortest side (the header) facing outwards. The headers of each row are centred over the gaps between the headers in the row below. This bond is stronger than the stretcher bond but it is less common because it can create an asymmetrical pattern and it can be more difficult to lay.
- English Bond: This is a bond where every other course of brickwork alternates between headers and stretchers. It is a strong bond and is often used in load-bearing walls. The alternating pattern of headers and stretchers creates a strong bond because the headers of one course bond with the stretchers of the next course.
- Flemish Bond: This is a bond that is similar to the English bond, but instead of alternating headers and stretchers every other course, headers and stretchers are interspersed within each course. This creates a decorative pattern, but it is less strong than the English bond because the headers are not bonded with the stretchers of the next course.
- Raking Bond: This is a bond that is used for walls that slope or curve. The bricks are laid in such a way that the joints between the bricks maintain a consistent slope or curve.
- Zig-Zag Bond: This is a bond that is used to create a zig-zag pattern in the brickwork. A zig-zag bond is created by laying the bricks in such a way that the ends of the bricks of one course form the middle of the bricks of the next course.
- Garden Wall Bond: This is a bond used in garden walls where the bricks are laid at an angle to the wall face, creating an overlap. This style of bond is used to give a decorative finish to the wall.
Overall, different types of bond in brick masonry have different strengths and appearances. Factors such as the intended use, design and aesthetic considerations, and regional style are all taken into account when choosing the appropriate bond for a building project.
Stone masonry and brick masonry are both forms of masonry that involve the construction of walls and other structures using individual units (stones or bricks) that are laid together in a specific pattern. However, there are some key differences between the two forms of masonry.
- Material: The most obvious difference between stone masonry and brick masonry is the type of material used. Stone masonry uses natural stones such as granite, limestone, and sandstone, while brick masonry uses fired clay bricks.
- Composition: Stone masonry can be composed of different types of rock, and each rock will have its own unique properties such as colour, strength, and durability. Brick masonry is composed of clay which is fired at high temperatures, which gives bricks its strength, durability and uniformity.
- Appearance: Because stone masonry uses natural stones, the final appearance of a stone masonry structure can be quite varied, depending on the type of stone used. Brick masonry, on the other hand, tends to have a more uniform appearance because all the bricks are identical.
- Cost: Stone masonry is generally more expensive than brick masonry. This is because natural stones are more expensive than clay bricks, and the process of quarrying, cutting, and shaping stones is more labor-intensive than manufacturing clay bricks.
- Workmanship: Stone masonry requires more skill and experience than brick masonry. Each stone has unique characteristics, so the mason must be able to adjust the size, shape, and position of each stone to ensure a good fit. Brick masonry is more forgiving, as the bricks are uniform in shape and size.
- Durability and Weathering: Stone masonry is generally more durable than brick masonry, because natural stones are more resistant to weathering and erosion than fired clay bricks. However, brick masonry has an advantage because it can be reinforced with steel and concrete, which can improve its structural strength and durability.
In summary, while both stone masonry and brick masonry involve the construction of walls and other structures using individual units, they have key differences in material, composition, appearance, cost, workmanship, and durability. The choice between the two types of masonry will depend on factors such as the intended use, design and aesthetic considerations, and regional style, as well as the availability and cost of the materials.
Recall the following Composite Masonry: i. Brick Stone Composite Masonry ii. Concrete Masonry, iii. Reinforced Brick Masonry
The following are types of composite masonry:
- Brick Stone Composite Masonry: This is a type of composite masonry where bricks and stones are combined to create a structure. In this type of masonry, bricks are used for the main structure, and stones are used for decorative or load-bearing purposes. The use of stones in this way can add to the durability and strength of the structure, as well as providing a unique aesthetic.
- Concrete Masonry: This type of composite masonry involves the use of concrete masonry units (CMUs), also called concrete blocks, in addition to traditional brick masonry. Concrete blocks are made of cement, aggregate, and water, and they are typically larger and stronger than bricks. Concrete blocks can be used to create load-bearing walls, or they can be used as infill between the frames of steel or concrete structures. The use of concrete blocks can enhance the structural integrity of masonry and also provide fire resistance.
- Reinforced Brick Masonry: This type of composite masonry involves the use of steel reinforcement in traditional brick masonry. Steel reinforcement can be used to improve the strength and durability of brick masonry walls, as well as to increase their resistance to seismic activity and other external loads. Reinforced brick masonry is often used in load-bearing walls and in areas prone to earthquakes. The reinforcement can be added as vertical steel rods, or as horizontal steel bars placed between layers of brickwork, or in some cases a combination of both.
Composite masonry is a type of masonry that utilises multiple types of materials in order to create a structure with increased strength, durability, and resistance to external loads. The choice between different types of composite masonry will depend on factors such as the intended use, design and aesthetic considerations, and regional style, as well as the availability and cost of the materials. In addition, the level of loading and structural requirement, fire resistance and other building codes can also play a role in the selection of composite masonry.