**First Law of Thermodynamics**

Contents

**Describe the First Law of Thermodynamics** 1

**Recall the concept of Internal Energy** 2

**Describe the Perpetual Motion Machine-1** 3

**Recall different types of Work done** 4

**Recall the term Energy of Universe** 5

**Recall the concept of Enthalpy** 6

**Describe the concept of Free Expansion** 7

**Recall the concept of Control Volume analysis** 8

**Derive the Steady Flow Energy Equation** 9

**Recall the application of Steady Flow process** 10

**Recall the comparison of SFEE with Euler and Bernoulli Equations** 11

**Describe the First Law of Thermodynamics**

The First Law of Thermodynamics, also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another. In thermodynamics, this law is used to describe the relationships between heat, work, and internal energy in a system.

According to the First Law, the total energy of a system is conserved, meaning that the energy within a system remains constant unless acted upon by an external force. This law applies to all systems, regardless of size or complexity.

In practical terms, the First Law of Thermodynamics is often expressed as the equation:

ΔU = Q – W

Where ΔU represents the change in internal energy of a system, Q represents the heat added to the system, and W represents the work done by the system.

This equation states that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. In other words, if heat is added to a system, its internal energy will increase, and if work is done by a system, its internal energy will decrease.

The First Law of Thermodynamics is a fundamental concept in thermodynamics, as it provides the foundation for understanding the relationships between energy, heat, and work in a system. It is used in a variety of applications, including energy conversion, power generation, and thermodynamics processes in chemical reactions.

**Recall the concept of Internal Energy**

Internal energy, represented by the symbol U, is a thermodynamic property that describes the total energy of a system. It is defined as the sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of the particles that make up a system. In other words, it is the energy associated with the motion and position of the molecules in a system.

Internal energy is a state function, meaning that it only depends on the initial and final states of a system, and not on the path taken to get from one state to the other. This means that the internal energy of a system can be calculated based on its initial and final states, regardless of the number of intermediate states it passes through.

Internal energy is important because it determines the temperature and pressure of a system. When heat is added to a system, its internal energy increases, causing its temperature to rise. Conversely, when heat is removed from a system, its internal energy decreases, causing its temperature to fall.

Internal energy is also closely related to the First Law of Thermodynamics. According to this law, the total energy of a system is conserved, meaning that the energy within a system remains constant unless acted upon by an external force. The First Law of Thermodynamics can be expressed as the equation:

ΔU = Q – W

Where ΔU represents the change in internal energy of a system, Q represents the heat added to the system, and W represents the work done by the system.

In conclusion, internal energy is a crucial concept in thermodynamics that describes the total energy of a system and its relationship with heat and work. It is used in a variety of applications, including energy conversion, power generation, and thermodynamics processes in chemical reactions.

**Describe the Perpetual Motion Machine-1**

A Perpetual Motion Machine-1 (PMM-1) is a hypothetical machine that is capable of functioning indefinitely without any external energy input. The concept of a PMM-1 is often used to illustrate the laws of thermodynamics and the concept of entropy.

According to the First Law of Thermodynamics, energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another. This means that a PMM-1, which would require an infinite amount of energy to function indefinitely, is impossible.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics, also known as the Law of Entropy, states that the total entropy of a closed system will always increase over time. Entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder in a system, and the Second Law states that the disorder in a closed system will always increase over time, eventually reaching a state of maximum entropy.

This means that a PMM-1 is also impossible according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, as it would require a decrease in entropy over time, which is in violation of the Second Law.

In conclusion, the concept of a PMM-1 is a useful tool for illustrating the laws of thermodynamics and the limitations of energy conversion. The laws of thermodynamics state that energy cannot be created or destroyed, and that the entropy of a closed system will always increase over time, making a PMM-1 impossible.

**Recall different types of Work done**

In thermodynamics, work is defined as the transfer of energy from one system to another in the form of a force acting through a distance. Work can take on many different forms and can be classified into several types based on the nature of the force and the way in which it is applied.

The following are some of the different types of work that can be done in thermodynamics:

- Mechanical work: Mechanical work is the work done by a force acting on an object, causing it to move through a distance. Examples of mechanical work include lifting a weight, pushing a lawnmower, and compressing a gas.
- Electrical work: Electrical work is the work done by an electrical force acting on an electrical charge. Examples of electrical work include charging a battery, powering a light bulb, and operating an electric motor.
- Thermal work: Thermal work is the work done by heat transfer. This can occur when heat is added to a system, causing it to expand, or when heat is removed from a system, causing it to contract. Examples of thermal work include heating a room, boiling water, and refrigeration.
- Chemical work: Chemical work is the work done by chemical reactions. This can occur when chemical bonds are broken or formed, releasing or absorbing energy in the process. Examples of chemical work include burning fuel, exploding a bomb, and powering a car engine.
- Nuclear work: Nuclear work is the work done by the conversion of nuclear energy into thermal energy. This can occur in nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs.

These are some of the different types of work that can be done in thermodynamics. Understanding the different types of work is important for understanding the relationships between energy, heat, and work in thermodynamic systems.

**Recall the term Energy of Universe**

The energy of the universe refers to the total amount of energy present in the entire universe. This energy can take on many different forms, including thermal energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, electromagnetic energy, and others.

The energy of the universe is a fundamental concept in thermodynamics, as it is related to the First Law of Thermodynamics. According to this law, the total energy of a system must remain constant, meaning that the total energy of the universe must also remain constant. This means that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another.

The concept of the energy of the universe is important for understanding the limitations of energy conversion and the nature of the universe itself. It also has important implications for fields such as cosmology and astrophysics, as the total energy of the universe affects the evolution of the universe over time.

In conclusion, the energy of the universe refers to the total amount of energy present in the entire universe, and is related to the First Law of Thermodynamics. It is a fundamental concept with important implications for understanding the nature of the universe and the limitations of energy conversion.

**Recall the concept of Enthalpy**

Enthalpy is a thermodynamic concept that is widely used in the study of energy changes in physical and chemical systems. It is a measure of the total internal energy of a system, including both its kinetic and potential energy. Enthalpy is a state function, which means that its value depends only on the initial and final states of a system and not on the intermediate steps that may have taken place during the change.

In thermodynamics, the enthalpy of a system is represented by the symbol H and is defined as the sum of its internal energy (U) and the product of its pressure (P) and volume (V). Mathematically, this can be expressed as:

H = U + PV

The enthalpy change for a process can be determined by measuring the difference in enthalpy between the initial and final states of the system. This change is commonly referred to as the heat of reaction and is represented by the symbol ΔH. If a process is exothermic, meaning that heat is released, the enthalpy change will be negative. On the other hand, if a process is endothermic, meaning that heat is absorbed, the enthalpy change will be positive.

In many chemical reactions, the enthalpy change is used to determine the conditions under which the reaction will occur spontaneously. If the ΔH for a reaction is negative, the reaction is exothermic and will proceed spontaneously. If ΔH is positive, the reaction is endothermic and will not proceed spontaneously.

Enthalpy is an important concept in thermodynamics because it allows us to quantify the heat energy involved in physical and chemical processes. By understanding the enthalpy of a system, we can determine the conditions under which reactions will occur, predict the behavior of systems under different conditions, and design processes that are thermodynamically favourable.

**Describe the concept of Free Expansion**

Free expansion is a thermodynamic process that occurs when a system is allowed to expand into a region of lower pressure, without any external work being performed on it. In other words, free expansion is a process in which a substance expands spontaneously, without any resistance from its surroundings.

The free expansion of a substance is a form of isothermal expansion, which means that the temperature of the substance remains constant throughout the process. During free expansion, the internal energy of the system remains constant, as no work is performed on the system and no heat is exchanged with the surroundings. As a result, the change in internal energy of the system is zero.

In thermodynamics, the free expansion of a gas is described by the Ideal Gas Law, which states that the pressure of a gas is proportional to its temperature, if the volume and number of particles are constant. This means that if a gas is allowed to expand freely into a region of lower pressure, its pressure will decrease and its volume will increase, while its temperature remains constant.

Free expansion is important in thermodynamics because it allows us to understand the behavior of gases and liquids under different conditions. By understanding the free expansion of a substance, we can predict its behavior in various physical and chemical systems, design processes that are thermodynamically favourable, and make predictions about the energy changes that occur in these systems.

In practical applications, free expansion is used in a number of industries, including refrigeration and air conditioning, where it is used to transfer heat from one location to another by allowing a refrigerant to expand into a region of lower pressure. It is also used in gas storage systems, where compressed gas is stored in containers and then allowed to expand freely when it is needed.

**Recall the concept of Control Volume analysis**

Control volume analysis is a powerful tool used in thermodynamics to analyze the energy changes in a system. The concept of control volume analysis is used to study systems in which energy is being exchanged with the surroundings, but the total number of particles in the system is not changing.

In control volume analysis, a control volume is defined as a region of space that is chosen to be the focus of the energy analysis. The boundaries of the control volume are considered to be fixed and impermeable, so that matter cannot enter or leave the control volume. The control volume is used to study the energy changes that occur in the system as a result of work done on the system and heat transfer between the system and the surroundings.

The first step in control volume analysis is to determine the energy balance for the system, which is expressed as the rate of change of internal energy of the system plus the work done on the system plus the heat transferred to the system:

dU/dt = Q – W

Where dU/dt is the rate of change of internal energy of the system, Q is the heat transferred to the system, and W is the work done on the system.

Once the energy balance has been established, the next step is to determine the nature and direction of the energy flow. This can be done by analyzing the work done on the system and the heat transferred to the system. If the work done on the system is positive, this means that energy is being added to the system, while if the work done on the system is negative, energy is being removed from the system. Similarly, if heat is being transferred to the system, this means that energy is being added to the system, while if heat is being transferred from the system, energy is being removed from the system.

Control volume analysis is widely used in thermodynamics to analyze the behavior of systems in a variety of engineering applications, such as power plants, air conditioning and refrigeration systems, and heat exchangers. The concept of control volume analysis is also useful for understanding the energy changes that occur in other physical systems, such as fluids, gases, and liquids.

In conclusion, control volume analysis is a fundamental concept in thermodynamics that provides a powerful tool for understanding the energy changes in a system. By analyzing the work done on the system and the heat transferred to the system, control volume analysis helps us to determine the nature and direction of energy flow and make predictions about the behavior of systems under different conditions.

**Derive the Steady Flow Energy Equation**

The Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE) is a fundamental equation in thermodynamics that is used to analyze the energy changes in a steady flow system. A steady flow system is a system in which the properties of the fluid, such as its velocity, pressure, and temperature, remain constant over time.

The SFEE is derived by considering the energy changes that occur in a steady flow system as energy flows into the system and energy flows out of the system. The SFEE is based on the first law of thermodynamics, which states that the total energy of a system is conserved, and can be expressed as:

dU/dt + d(m * h) / dt = Q – W

Where dU/dt is the rate of change of internal energy of the system, d(m * h) / dt is the rate of change of enthalpy of the system, Q is the heat transferred to the system, and W is the work done on the system.

In a steady flow system, the rate of change of internal energy of the system is zero, as the properties of the fluid remain constant over time. The rate of change of enthalpy of the system can be expressed as the sum of the enthalpy entering the system and the enthalpy leaving the system:

d(m * h) / dt = m_{in} * h_{in} – m_{out} * h_{out}

Where m_{in} is the mass flow rate of fluid entering the system, h_{in} is the enthalpy of the fluid entering the system, m_{out} is the mass flow rate of fluid leaving the system, and h_{out} is the enthalpy of the fluid leaving the system.

By substituting the expression for d(m * h) / dt into the first law of thermodynamics, the SFEE can be expressed as:

m_{in} * h_{in} – m_{out} * h_{out} = Q – W

This equation expresses the energy balance in a steady flow system, and can be used to analyze the energy changes that occur in the system, including the work done on the system, the heat transferred to the system, and the enthalpy changes of the fluid as it flows through the system.

In conclusion, the Steady Flow Energy Equation is a fundamental equation in thermodynamics that is used to analyze the energy changes in a steady flow system. By considering the energy changes that occur as energy flows into and out of the system, the SFEE provides a useful tool for understanding the behavior of fluids and predicting the energy changes that occur in various engineering systems.

**Recall the application of Steady Flow process**

The Steady Flow process is a concept in thermodynamics that refers to a process in which the properties of a fluid, such as its velocity, pressure, and temperature, remain constant over time. This type of process is characterized by a constant mass flow rate, which means that the same amount of fluid enters and leaves the system per unit time.

The concept of steady flow is important in thermodynamics because it allows for the analysis of energy changes in a system using the Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE). This equation is derived from the first law of thermodynamics and is used to calculate the work done on the system, the heat transferred to the system, and the enthalpy changes of the fluid as it flows through the system.

The application of steady flow processes is widespread in various engineering systems, including power plants, refrigeration and air conditioning systems, and internal combustion engines. For example, in power plants, the steam cycle is typically analyzed as a series of steady flow processes, with the SFEE used to calculate the work done by the steam and the heat transferred to the system.

In refrigeration and air conditioning systems, steady flow processes are used to analyze the behavior of refrigerants as they circulate through the system, with the SFEE used to calculate the work done by the refrigerant and the heat transferred to the environment.

In internal combustion engines, steady flow processes are used to analyze the behavior of the fuel and air as they enter and exit the engine, with the SFEE used to calculate the work done by the expanding gases and the heat transferred to the engine.

In conclusion, the concept of steady flow is a fundamental aspect of thermodynamics, and its application is widespread in various engineering systems. By using the SFEE, engineers are able to calculate the energy changes that occur in these systems and design more efficient and effective systems.

**Recall the comparison of SFEE with Euler and Bernoulli Equations**

The Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE), the Euler Equation, and the Bernoulli Equation are all equations used to analyze the energy changes in fluid systems. While each of these equations is derived from the first law of thermodynamics, they differ in their focus and application, and a comparison of these equations can help to understand their relative strengths and limitations.

The SFEE is a general energy equation that can be used to analyze any type of steady flow system, including both compressible and incompressible fluids. The SFEE is based on the first law of thermodynamics, which states that the total energy of a system is conserved, and it can be used to calculate the work done on the system, the heat transferred to the system, and the enthalpy changes of the fluid as it flows through the system.

The Euler Equation is a relationship between the pressure, velocity, and potential energy of a fluid in a system. The Euler Equation is derived from the first law of thermodynamics, and it is used to analyze the energy changes in compressible fluids, such as gases. The Euler Equation is based on the concept of an energy head, which is the energy per unit weight of fluid.

The Bernoulli Equation is a relationship between the pressure and velocity of a fluid in a system. The Bernoulli Equation is derived from the principle of conservation of energy and is used to analyze the energy changes in incompressible fluids, such as liquids. The Bernoulli Equation is based on the concept of pressure head, which is the pressure of the fluid relative to atmospheric pressure.

In conclusion, the SFEE, the Euler Equation, and the Bernoulli Equation are all useful tools for analyzing the energy changes in fluid systems, but each of these equations has its own strengths and limitations. The SFEE is a general energy equation that can be used to analyze any type of steady flow system, while the Euler Equation and the Bernoulli Equation are more specialised equations that are used to analyze specific types of fluid systems. By understanding the strengths and limitations of each of these equations, engineers can choose the appropriate equation for their specific application, and make more accurate predictions of the energy changes that occur in fluid systems.